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תות שדה - Fragaria ananassa - תות שדה - Fragaria ananassa
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תות שדה - Fragaria ananassa

עודכן ב: 28/03/2017

תות שדה משתייך למשפחת הוורדניים- Rosaceae .

תות שדה הוא שיח רב שנתי, המתפשט  באופן אופקי על ידי שלוחות. לצמח יש שורש סיבי הגדל כלפי מטה, וגבעולים רבים הצומחים כלפי מעלה. העלים משוננים, מחולקים לשלושה חלקים. הפרחים לבנים, בעלי אבקנים רבים. מכול פרח נוצר פרי אחד (1).

מוצאו של תות שדה מאירופה ואמריקה (2). תות שדה גדל כיום בגינות הוא פיתוח שנעשה במאה ה-18 משני מינים מצפון אמריקה, Fragaria virginiana ו-

Fragaria chilonensis (1). הכליאו את שני המינים במטרה לקבל פרי גדול ומתוק יותר.

הארצות המייצרות את הכמות הגדולה ביותר של תות שדה הן: אוסטרליה, איטליה, ארה"ב, צרפת, קנדה, ניו-זילנד ויפן (3).

הפירות רגישים למחלות ולזיהומים רבים, וגידול תות שדה  מלווה בדרך כלל בכמות גדולה של חומרי הדברה שניתנים כמה פעמים במשך הגידול של הצמח.  

תות שדה נחשב לצמח  המקבל את הכמות הגדולה ביותר של חומרי הדברה . הוא עומד במקום הראשון מתוך רשימה  של 12 צמחים (1).  

 

מרכיבים

הפרי מכיל אנתוציאנינים, ellagic acid flavonols, flavanol, ellagitannins                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

וחומצה צינמית. המרכיבים האלה הם בעלי פעילות נגד סרטן, אנטי מיקרוביאליים, אנטי אוקסידנטים, נוגדי טפילים, אנטי ויראליים (1).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              הפלבונולים, כגון, הקורצטין הם נוגדי היסטמין ולכן נוגדי אלרגיה , אנטי דלקתיים.

פרואנתוציאנים, כגון  הפלבונול  מצויים בפירות הפטל בכמות גדולה יותר מאשר בענבים שחורים וירוקים (1).

הצמחים הנחשבים לעשירים ביותר בפרואנתוציאנינים הם פירות החמוציות- Vaccinium  macrocarpon וקקאו- Theobroma cacao.

 

שימוש היסטורי

הרומאים היו הראשונים שדיווחו על פעילות רפואית של פירות תות שדה, והיוונים אחריהם.  הם טענו שניתן לרפא גאוט  עם פירות תות שדה, ושהם יעילים גם למערכת העיכול. במאה ה-16 וה-17 גידלו תות שדה בכמות גדולה, והוא נחשב כמרכיב חשוב בתזונה חשובה לבריאות.

Culpeper טען שפירות תות שדה יכולים לרפא מחלות רבות. העלים היו החלק העיקרי בשימוש רפואי, אבל לינאוס הוכיח שהפירות יעילים  מאד לטיפול בגאט שגרם לכאבים קשים וניוון.

העלים הם משתנים עדינים ואסטרינג'נט (1).

משתמשים בעלים ובשורשים להכנת משחות, חליטות וסירופ. ציפת הפרי ומיץ מהפרי שימשו גם הם להכנת מוצרים קוסמטיים להלבנת העור ולטיפול בכוויות מהשמש.

כיום משתמשים בעיקר בעלים לטיפול בשלשול ודיזנטריה.

כמו רבים מהעלים של משפחת הוורדניים גם עלי תות שדה הם אסטרינג'נט.

הפירות משמשים בעיקר כמזון, מכינים מהם ג'לטין, גלידות, משקאות קלים, מיצים, יין וליקר  (1).

 

מחקרים הנערכים בימינו

 

צריכה במזון של פירות וירקות עשירים במרכיבים אנטי אוקסידנטיים, מסייעת למניעה של מחלות, כגון, סרטן, הפרעות במערכת של הלב וכלי הדם, מחלות ניווניות במשך החיים (4,5).

מחקרים נוספים הראו פעילות אנטי דלקתית של פוליפנולים, שיפור בליפידים של הפלסמה, ירידה בסיכון לשבץ, ירידה בסיכון לחסימת עורקים (6).

מחקר שנעשה על נשים צעירות, ונשים בגיל העמידה הראה שאנתוציאנינים, כגון אלה המצויים בפירות תות שדה, הפחיתו את הסיכון לחלות במחלות לב (6).

המינון הממוצע של פירות הפטל הוא 100 ג' ליום (1).

 

ערך תזונתי של 100ג' פירות

 

קלוריות                      32

חלבון                         0.67 ג'

פחמימות                    7.7 ג'

שומן                          0.3 ג'

ויטמין C                     58.8 מ"ג

מנגן                          0.56 מ"ג

אשלגן                        153 מ"ג

מגנזיום                      13 מ"ג

זרחן                          24 מ"ג

סידן                           16 מ"ג  

 

 מקורות

 

1. Bauman H.  Food as medicine: Strawberry, Fragaria ananassa, Rosaceae.

HerbalEGram Vol. 12, Issue 5, May 2015.

2. Madison D. Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Food Plants. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 2008.

3. Murray M. Encyclopedia of Healing Foods. New York, NY: Atria Books, 2005.

4 .Giampieri F. Alvarez-Suarez J. Battino M. Strawberry and human health: effects beyond antioxidant  activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62: 3867-3876.

5. Charles A. Meyer A. Geny B. et al. Polyphenols prevent ageing-related impairment in skeletal muscle mitochondrial function through decreased reactive oxygen species production. Experimental Physiology. February 2013, 98:536-545.

6. Cassidy A. Mukamal K. Liu L. et al. High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infraction in young and middle – aged women. Circulation. January 2013: 127: 188-196.